Īham – intending the distant meaning of a word:

و ذهب رواؤه فعاد خلافا بلا ثمر

“And its lustre has disappeared so it has become a dispute/argument (خلاف) without any fruit.”

خلاف also means a tree without fruit. So here the Imam is intending the distant meaning of “tree without fruit”, rather than “dispute”. This is an example of Iham, where the a word is used in its distant meaning, not the immediately apparent one.

Majaz aqliyy / isnad majazi:

Taking a verb or a verb-like entity and predicating it to other than what it’s for.

Example from the text:

و سالت بأعناق مطايا تلك الأحاديث البطاح

“And with the necks of the camels of these statements, valleys are now flowing.”

In reality, it’s the water that is flowing, not the valleys. But the expression “valleys are flowing” indicates that the speed with which the water is flowing is so great that it is as if the ground underneath the water itself is flowing.

Other examples:

نهاره صائم و ليله قائم

“His day is fasting and his night is standing.”

It is actually the person who is fasting in the day and standing in prayer at night.

عيشة راضية

“A life that is pleased” [Al-Qari’ah:7]

This would normally be:

عيشة راضٍ عنها صاحبها

“A life that the person is pleased with it”

Isti’aara Musarraha:

An Isti’aara where the speaker only mentions the mushabbah bihi without mentioning the mushabbah (Isti’aara bil Kinaya is discussed in the previous post on the khutbah, so I’ll just be providing examples of Isti’aara Musarraha here insha Allah).

Example from the text:

كشفت عن وجوه خرائده اللثام

“I removed the veil from the faces of its beautiful damsels.”

Here the paragraphs, sentences and discussions of the book are being likened to “beautiful damsels”, which is the mushabbah bihi, explicitly mentioned (unlike Isti’aara bil Kinaya).

Example from the Qur’an:

إِنَّكَ لَا تُسۡمِعُ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ

“Surely you cannot make the dead to hear.” [Al-Naml:80]

Those who deliberately reject the truth are being likened to the dead, which is the mushabbah bihi, explicitly mentioned.

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