Jalaluddin al Mahalli started the tafseer from Surah Kahf and finished it till the end. Then he did the tafsir of Al Fatiha but after that he passed away (may Allah have mercy on him).
His student, Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, picked up the task 6 years later and finished it in 40 days. He was only 22 at the time. May Allah have mercy on them both.
Alif-Laam-Meem: commentator takes the position of the salaf i.e. saying only Allah knows the meaning of these letters.
Dhalika – The distant ismul ishara was used but the intent is the qareeb (“hadha”). The ‘ba’eed’ was used for the purpose of ta’dheem (veneration). Or it could allude to distance in rank (i.e. it is far above us in rank).
Annahu min ‘indi Allah – that this [book] is from Allah, there is no doubt about it. This is badal from the pronoun in “fee hi”. The doubt can’t be in a thing, but in a statement. So the doubt is in the proposition that this book is from Allah.
La rayba fee hi – khabr for ‘dhalika’ (which is the mubtada).
Other scholars take ‘dhalika’ and ‘al kitabu’ and consider them mubtada and khabar where both are ma’rifah (ta’reef at-tarfayn), i.e. “This is the Book”.
The benefit from the above is firstly in the ta’dheem due to ‘dhalika’. Secondly, restriction and confinement due to ta’reef al-tarfayn. “This is the Book”, with emphasis on “is”. Thirdly, the absence of an adjective or qualifier added to ‘the Book’ gives the meaning that in being a book it is the most perfect, such that nothing else counts as book in comparison.
‘La rayba fee hi’ comes to nullify any potential question about whether this statement is actually true or an exaggeration.
As there is no ‘waaw’ joining the 2 sentences this is an instance of “Fasl”, where no conjunction is used between sentences A and B, but both are in complete harmony. This is a topic of balagha called “Wasl and Fasl”. Here, B is re-enforcing A.
When connecting sentences A and B with ‘waaw’, they have to have some similarity but they also need to have some difference as well, i.e. they should have munasaba and mughayarah. E.g. when A and B are opposites.
إِنَّ الاٌّبْرَارَ لَفِى نَعِيمٍ – وَإِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِى جَحِيمٍ
Verily, the Abrar (the righteous believers) will be in Delight. And verily, the wicked will be in the blazing Fire (Hell). [Al-Infitar: 13-14]
When B is reinforcing A, or B is badal from A, there won’t be a ‘waaw’ conjunction.
Ibn Ashoor – At-Tahreeru Wa al-Tanweer (this tafseer discusses wasl/fasl).
“Hudan” is 2nd khabar in the meaning of “haadin” (ismul fa’il).
“Those that are on the way to Taqwa” – this is called Majaazul Aul (bi i’tibaari ma ya’oolu). When you call something in consideration of what it’ll become, i.e. that which it has not yet achieved, but it’s on its way to achieving it.
From Hashiyatul Jamal:
It is either mawsool or mafsool.
1) It is either sifah muqayyadah – restricting muttaqeen to not only those who leave sins but also do good (that is if taqwa was initially understood as leaving sins only).
2) Or it can be sifah muwaddihatun – clarifying (as opposed to restricting) what is already well known about the meaning of taqwa i.e. leaving sins and doing good. In this case, the initial understanding of taqwa is not restricted as above, but clarified, because it is just detail.
3) Or it can be ‘maadihatun’ (i.e. praising) – those attributed by taqwa are praised
In the above 3 cases, the sifah (i.e. alladheena onwards) is in jarr.
Or “alladhee” onwards could be nasb on the basis of praise by the estimation of “a’nee”.
For example, in Al Baqara Verse 177, “as-Sabireena” is in nasb as opposed to “al-Moofoona” and others referred to in the verse which are in raf’. This grammatical shift is to make special mention of as-Sabireen for praise (i.e. nasb on the basis of madh). Refer to Ashraf Ali Thanvi’s tafseer or even Mufti Taqi Usmani’s commentary on this verse (available on Qur’an explorer).
Or it could be raf’ for praise as well by the estimation of ‘hum’.
E.g. Marartu bi Rajulin, Huwa Qaa’imun.
These are called qat’i ila al-nasb, or qat’i ila al-raf’.
If Mafsool, alladhee onwards is raf’ due to being mubtada and ulaaika onwards is the khabr.
“Bi maa ghaaba ‘anhum…”: They believe in those things that are distant from them.
Ghayb is a masdar meaning “to be unseen”. By referring to it as ‘Ma’ the commentator is interpreting it as an entity, i.e. the masdar is in the meaning of Ismul Fa’il. So the meaning is not “to be unseen” but “the things which are unseen” i.e. hell-fire, paradise etc. Therefore, Ghayb is used here to refer to “things that are distant” in an exaggerated way (mubalagha). E.g. “Shahada” has been used to refer to things that are present in the verse “‘Aalimul Ghaybi wa ash-Shahadah”.
“Things that are distant” are those that are distant from the senses and also the intellect totally i.e. they believe in these things purely because Allah said so. You can establish rational proofs for them (e.g. kalam) but they are not immediately obvious.
But if “ghayb” maintains its masdar meaning, then “bi-l ghaybi” connects to an omitted word (e.g. multabisun) and would form the haal of those who believe. So the meaning would be “those who believe while being distant (e.g. from the Prophet i.e. they didn’t see all the proofs of his Prophethood; or distant from the believers i.e. they are not like the munafiqoon such that they pretend to believe when amongst the believers but disbelieve when away from them.)