وَالَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَـقِهِ
And those who break the covenant of Allah, after its ratification…[Baqarah:27]
مِيثَـقِهِ can be ism or masdar. If it is masdar it can mean:
1. “His [Allah’s] strengthening it” i.e. meethaq is mudaf to the Fa’il
2. “Its [covenant’s/‘ahad’s] strengthening” i.e. meethaq is mudaf to the maf’ool bihi
3. “Its having been strengthened” i.e. meethaq in the passive voice mudaf to na’ib fail
Abu Saud about the above 3:
1. If mithaq (oath/covenant, a higher degree of promise) is mudaf to ‘ahd (promise), then it means their acceptance of it. Ahad is taking the covenant and Mithaq is their acceptance of it.
2. If the pronoun is referring to Allah, Mithaq would refer to the verses, signs, books and the warnings of the Messengers. In both #1 & #2, we have to infer a word such as tahaqquq, because Mithaq is a noun and does not have an occurrence aspect to it e.g. Min ba’di tahaqquqi meethaaqihi (after the realisation of its covenant). If mithaq is taken as a masdar then we don’t need the assumed tahaqquq.
3. If the pronoun is referring to the promise and meethaq is an active masdar (mabniyyi li al-faa’ili), then the meaning is: “after their strengthening it through acceptance and commitment (iltizam) to it.” Or if the faa’il is considered to be Allah, then His meethaq is through sending Messengers and Books. [Iltizam is a condition for Iman. Both Heraclius and Abu Talib expressed faith but they were not believers because they lacked the iltizam, to commit to it, to consider mandatory to oneself.]
4. If the masdar is passive, then the pronoun would be the na’ib faa’il i.e. “after its (‘ahd) having been strengthened.”